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Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

Rehabilitation of Ligament Injury

 What is Ligament?

A ligament is a type of fibrous connective tissue in the body that connects bones to each other, providing stability and support to joints. Composed of dense bundles of collagen fibers, ligaments are strong, and flexible, and play a vital role in maintaining the structural integrity of joints. 

Ligaments help to limit excessive movement or instability in the joint, thereby preventing injuries. They are found throughout the body, particularly in joints such as the knee, ankle, wrist, and shoulder. 

What is ligament Sprain?

Sprains are the common name for injuries to ligaments. Ligament sprains can range in severity from mild, in which the ligament is only stretched or partially torn, to severe, in which the ligament is totally torn. Ligament injuries frequently result from abrupt, forceful movements that exceed the ligament's normal ability to stretch or withstand stress, such as twisting or impact.

Treatment for ligament injuries may involve rest, rehabilitation exercises, and in some cases, surgical repair or reconstruction.

Rehabilitation after a ligament injury

A structured and progressive process is involved in rehabilitation after ligament repair in order to return the affected joint's strength, flexibility, and functional capabilities. The type and extent of the ligament injury, as well as the surgeon's recommendations, may all affect the specific rehabilitation programme. Here are some terms and ideas from general medicine that are frequently used in conjunction with ligament repair and rehabilitation:


To protect the healing ligament and facilitate early tissue recovery after ligament repair surgery, the joint may be immobilised for a predetermined amount of time with a brace, cast, or splint.

Exercises to regain range of motion (ROM): 

After the initial healing phase is complete, the rehabilitation programme usually consists of gentle exercises to regain the joint's ROM. This entails gradual increases in controlled joint movement within the permissible range as healing advances.

Strengthening exercises: 

To increase the muscle strength around the joint as the ligament heals, strengthening exercises are introduced. These exercises help to make up for the weak ligament by frequently concentrating on the muscles that support and stabilise the joint.

Balance training and proprioception: 

Ligament injuries can impair the stability and proprioception (awareness of joint position) of a joint. Incorporating particular exercises and activities helps prevent further injuries and restores normal function by enhancing proprioception and improving balance.

Functional exercises: 

As rehabilitation progresses, patients perform functional exercises that replicate tasks and motions from their daily lives or athletic endeavours. This aids in restoring the joint's capacity to carry out particular actions and movements necessary for normal function.


During rehabilitation, a variety of modalities may be used to help manage pain, reduce swelling, and encourage tissue healing. Ice therapy, heat therapy, ultrasound, electrical stimulation, and manual therapy methods are a few examples.


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