Skip to main content

Featured post

Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

What is Lower Cross Syndrome??

What is Lower Cross Syndrome?

Muscle imbalances in the lower back and pelvic support muscles are the hallmark of the musculoskeletal disorder known as lower cross syndrome. It is a typical condition that can lead to pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility, especially in those who spend a lot of time sitting down.

Dr. Vladimir Janda, a Czech physician and researcher who specialised in musculoskeletal rehabilitation, coined the phrase "lower cross syndrome" in the late 1990s. Janda described the disorder as a pattern of muscular imbalances that cause low back dysfunction and pain.

The muscles on one side of the pelvis shorten and tighten in lower cross syndrome, while the muscles on the other side weaken and lengthen. This results in a distortion in the pelvic alignment, which can put strain on the lower back, the hips, and the legs.

The following muscles are impacted by lower cross syndrome:

Tight hip flexors: Hip flexors are a group of muscles that attach the thigh bone to the pelvis and are in charge of flexing the hip joint.  When these muscles are tight, the pelvis may be tilted forward and the lower back may exhibit an excessive arch.

Tight lumbar extensors: A group of muscles known as the lumbar extensors run along the spine and are in charge of extending the back. These muscles have the potential to worsen the lower back's pronounced arch when they become tight.

Weak abs:  The abdominal muscles are in charge of supporting the spine and preserving good posture. The pull of the contracted hip flexors and lumbar extensors cannot be effectively resisted when these muscles are weak.

Weak gluteal muscles: The gluteal muscles are in charge of stabilising the pelvis and extending the hip joint. When these muscles are weak, they are unable to effectively resist the pull of the contracted lumbar extensors and hip flexors.

Lower cross syndrome is caused by an imbalanced "cross" formed by weak abdominal and gluteal muscles combined with tight hip flexors and lumbar extensors.


  • Low back pain
  • Hip pain
  • Knee pain
  • Reduce mobility
  • Difficulty performing ADLs


Exercises that combine stretching and strengthening are frequently used to treat lower cross syndrome in an effort to reestablish proper muscle alignment and balance. A personalised exercise programme can be developed by a physical therapist based on a person's unique requirements and objectives.

Exercises like these could be incorporated into a lower cross syndrome treatment programme:

  • Hip flexors stretching
  • Lumbar extensor stretching
  • Abdominal strengthening exrcises
  • Gluteal strengthening exercises

Other treatment includes:

  • Manual therapy to release tension in muscles
  • Medications such as Ibuprofen or Acetaminophen
  • Corticosteroid injection
  • Lifestyle modification



Popular posts from this blog

What is Anatomical pulley? Example of Anatomical pulley

Understanding the Importance of Anatomical Pulleys in Physiotherapy As a physiotherapy student, it is essential to have a good understanding of the human body's anatomy and how it works. One of the essential structures in the body that plays a significant role in movement and biomechanics is the anatomical pulley. In this article, we will explore what an anatomical pulley is, its types, and its importance in physiotherapy. What is an Anatomical Pulley? A pulley is a simple mechanical machine that consists of a wheel that turns readily on the axle, usually grooved for a rope or a wire cable. In the human body, the pulley is replaced by a bone, cartilage, or ligament, and the cord is replaced by a muscle tendon. The tendon is lubricated by synovial fluid, and the surface of the tendon is covered by a thin visceral synovial membrane. The tendon is lubricated so that it may easily slide over the pulley. Classification of Anatomical Pulleys There are mainly four classes of pulleys

Electrotherapy Simplified by Basanta Kumar Nanda PDF Download

Electrotherapy Simplified  by Basanta Kumar Nanda The aim of this book is to focus on the electrotherapy simplified. Electrotherapy is one of the important aspects among the various approaches of patient management available to a physiotherapist. Electrotherapy Simplified has tried to give comprehensive knowledge on electrotherapy and actinotherapy, starting from basic electricity and magnetism to the theoretical and clinical aspects of the different modalities applied by physiotherapists.  This book consists of 19 chapters, which include an introduction, inflammation, repair, and role of physical agents, electrical fundamentals, magnetic energy, valves, transistors, and rectifiers, electrical measurement systems and distribution of electricity, electrophysiology of nerve transmission, and muscle contraction, low-frequency currents, electrodiagnosis, medium frequency currents, low-intensity laser therapy, ultraviolet radiation, and traction.  About 250 objective question answers have b

Base of Support (BOS) in Physiotherapy

The base of support means the area supported beneath the object. Whenever the base of support is more the stability will be more.  Greater the BOS lower the COG of any object. For example, the fundamental position of standing the BOS is lesser than the lying, so COG in the standing position it is in the higher level whereas in the lying posture it will be just near to the ground as a result lying posture is more stable than any other fundamental position and also it can be maintained for the longer period. The stability is directly proportional to BOS and inversely proportional to COG.