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Showing posts from April, 2023

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What Does Warm up and Cool Down To Our Body??

 What is WARM UP?? A warm-up is a pre-exercise phase that usually consists of low- to moderate-intensity movements and activities. Its main goal is to progressively raise the body's core temperature, pulse rate, breathing rate, and blood supply to the muscles that are in use. The purpose of a warm-up is to get the body ready for more physically and psychologically taxing activities and exercise. Many exercises, including dynamic stretching, light aerobics, and sport-specific drills , are frequently used as part of a warm-up. These exercises improve brain activation, joint mobility, and muscular flexibility. A warm-up also makes it easier for oxygen to reach the muscles efficiently, which enhances energy metabolism and lowers the chance of injury. The warm-up phase facilitates the change from a state of inactivity or rest to one of physical exertion preparation. It is seen as a crucial part of any fitness programme, helping to enhance performance, reduce injuries, and promote gener

Is Inflammation your well-wisher or enemy?

How do you define Inflammation? The complex physiological reaction known as inflammation is brought on by noxious stimuli like pathogens, harmed cells, or irritants. The inflammatory response of the body aids in tissue repair and healing while serving as an essential defense mechanism against infection and injury. Underlying factors responsible for Inflammation: Infection by microorganisms Injury, such as trauma, surgery Chronic stress Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis Environmental toxins, such as pollution, cigarette smoke Allergy Mechanism: When immune cells like mast cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells are activated, they release a range of pro-inflammatory mediators like cytokines, chemokines, and prostaglandins. This starts the inflammatory response. These mediators encourage immune cells to migrate into the afflicted tissue to remove the harmful stimuli and aid in attracting additional immune cells to the site of inflammation. Immune cells work to remove any

SLR Test (Straight Leg Raise Test): Technique, Reasoning, Modification

 What is SLR Test? The straight leg raise test is a neurodynamic test. The SLR is a neural tension test that can be used to determine whether neural tissue is involved in a space-occupying lesion, frequently a herniated lumbar disc. Technique: SLR is an inactive ( passive ) test. The normal leg is tested first before the other legs, one at a time. The patient is placed in a supine position without a pillow under his or her head, with the hip medially rotated and adducted and the knee extended, to perform the SLR test. While maintaining the knee in its fully extended position, the clinician raises the patient's leg by the posterior ankle. Up until the patient complains of pain or tightness in the back or back of the leg, the clinician keeps lifting the patient's leg by flexing at the hip. Reasoning: Acute dural inflammation, gluteal abscess, disc protrusion or extrusion, buttock tumor, and acute spondylosis are all possible causes of pain at less than 30 degrees of hip flexion

Snapping or Clicking Hip Syndrome (SHS): Lesser known but Important

What is Snapping Hip Syndrome? When the hip is moving, there may be an audible " snap " or " click " sound in or around the hip, which is a symptom of the condition known as snapping hip syndrome (SHS) , also known as Coxa Saltans .  Causes SHS can have a number of different causes, which are further divided into three categories: intra-articular, internal, and external. External : The iliotibial band crossing the greater trochanter of the femur externally is the most frequent occurrence. Internal : The iliopsoas tendon snapping over a bony prominence of the pelvis. Intra-articular (least frequent) Signs & Symptoms External SHS: A snapping or pain that is localized laterally over the greater trochanter typically develops gradually in people with external SHS. The external type mostly involves a minor mechanism of injury and is not connected to a traumatic event.  Frequently, the clinical presentation can be seen by watching and listening for a snap as the patie

Lordosis: A Common Spinal Deformity

What does the term Lordosis mean? The spine's anterior curvature is known as lordosis. Excessive curvature of the lumbar spine can cause an increased lordosis, also known as hyperlordosis . It is a pathological exaggeration of the typical curves present in the cervical and lumbar spines. Causes of Increased Lordosis: Increased lordosis can be brought on by a variety of factors. Functional or postural deformity Lax muscles, particularly those in the abdomen, in conjunction with tight muscles, particularly those in the hip flexors or lumbar extensors a large belly brought on by being overweight or pregnant strong and typically tense muscles Spondylolisthesis Congenital issues, like bilateral congenital hip dislocation failure to segment the facet joint segment's neural arch  putting on high-heeled footwear Symptoms of Lordosis: Lower back pain Poor posture Stiffness (Stiff neck and back) Difficulty in standing and walking Restricted ROM Tingling and numbness Exaggerated lordosi

Want to know about ULTT or ULNT??

What is ULNT?? Upper limb Neurodynamic (Tension) Tests The neurodynamic tests of the upper limbs are analogous to the lumbar spine's straight leg raising test. In reality, stress is placed on all the tissues of the upper limb during these tension tests, which are meant to stretch the neurological structures of the upper limb. It is also known as Brachial Plexus Tension or Elvey Test . Sensitizing tests are used to distinguish between the neurological tissue. Elvey's original test has since been divided into four tests. Changing the position of the shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, and fingers puts more strain on particular nerves. Each test starts with testing the good side, followed by positioning of the shoulder, then moves on to the forearm, wrist, fingers, and, due to its extensive range of motion (ROM), the elbow at last. It is crucial to apply a constant depression force to the shoulder girdle when positioning the shoulder so that, even with abduction, the shoulder girdle

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Types, Diagnostic tests and more

What is Thoracic Outlet Syndrome? The condition known as thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is brought on by the compression or constriction of the nerves or blood vessels in the thoracic outlet.  Important nerves and blood vessels that supply the arm and hand are located in the thoracic outlet, which is the small space between the collarbone (clavicle) and the first rib. Pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the arm, shoulder, and hand are just a few of the symptoms that can result from TOS. Three main categories of TOS exist: Neurogenic TOS:  The most prevalent form of TOS, known as neurogenic TOS, is brought on by compression of the brachial plexus, a web of nerves that starts in the neck and supplies the arm and hand. Trauma, repetitive overhead activities, bad posture, and anatomical abnormalities are just a few of the causes of neurogenic TOS. Vascular TOS:  The subclavian artery or vein, which supplies blood to the arm and hand, is compressed, resulting in vascular TOS. Less fre

Mechanism of Muscle Relaxant

What are Muscle Relaxants?  A class of medications known as muscle relaxants work by relaxing the skeletal muscles, reducing muscle tone, and relieving muscle spasms.  While the specific drug determines the exact mechanism of action, most muscle relaxants reduce muscle activity by either acting on the central nervous system or interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junction. How do different muscle relaxants work on the body? Peripheral muscle relaxants , like dantrolene , function by obstructing the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum found in skeletal muscle cells. Calcium ions play a crucial role in muscle contraction, and by preventing their release, dantrolene reduces the amount of calcium accessible for muscle contraction. This leads to muscle relaxation. Central muscle relaxants , such as baclofen and tizanidine, affect the central nervous system to decrease muscle activity. Baclofen is a GABA agonist that binds to GABA-B r

Quick look at HIP BURSITIS: causes, symptoms, treatment and more

Trochanteric bursitis , another name for hip bursitis, is a painful condition that affects the bursae close to the hip joint. The bursae are tiny sacs that are fluid-filled and function to lessen friction between muscles, tendons, and bones. Hip bursitis is characterized by the inflammation of the bursae , which causes pain and discomfort in the hip and the surrounding region. Brief Anatomy of Hip Joint: The head of the femur (the thigh bone) and the acetabulum of the pelvis come together to form the hip joint, which is a ball and socket joint.  The trochanteric bursa , which is situated on the outer part of the hip, and the iliopsoas bursa , which is situated on the front of the hip, are just two of the bursae that surround the hip joint. Causes of Hip Bursitis: There are numerous factors that can lead to hip bursitis, including: hip joint overuse or repetitive stress hip injury brought on by a fall or direct blow Walking or running with an improper gait or posture  Medical condition

What is Lower Cross Syndrome??

What is Lower Cross Syndrome? Muscle imbalances in the lower back and pelvic support muscles are the hallmark of the musculoskeletal disorder known as lower cross syndrome. It is a typical condition that can lead to pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility, especially in those who spend a lot of time sitting down. Dr. Vladimir Janda, a Czech physician and researcher who specialised in musculoskeletal rehabilitation, coined the phrase "lower cross syndrome" in the late 1990s. Janda described the disorder as a pattern of muscular imbalances that cause low back dysfunction and pain. The muscles on one side of the pelvis shorten and tighten in lower cross syndrome, while the muscles on the other side weaken and lengthen. This results in a distortion in the pelvic alignment, which can put strain on the lower back, the hips, and the legs. The following muscles are impacted by lower cross syndrome: Tight hip flexors : Hip flexors are a group of muscles that attach the thigh bone to

What is Upper Cross Syndrome??

Upper-crossed syndrome (UCS) is a condition of muscular imbalance that impacts the upper body, primarily the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is also referred to as proximal or shoulder girdle crossed syndrome, and it arises due to inequity between the tautness and feebleness of specific muscle groups. Joint dysfunction is caused by this pattern of imbalance, especially at the T4-T5 segment, atlanto-occipital joint, C4-C5 segment, cervicothoracic joint, and glenohumeral joint. According to Janda, these core areas of stress in the spine complies to transitional zones where the morphology of nearby vertebrae changes. What causes UCS? Poor posture is the main contributor to UCS. Long periods of time spent driving, using a computer, or sitting at a desk cause people to slump forward, which can cause their shoulders to round and their neck to protrude forward. The upper trapezius, levator scapula, pectoralis major, and minor muscles are overworked and strained as a result of this post

Special tests for Cervical Radiculopathy

What does Cervical Radiculopathy mean? Cervical radiculopathy is a medical condition that arises from the irritation or damage of one or more nerve roots located in the neck region, which can lead to symptoms like pain, weakness, numbness, or  tingling sensations in the arms, shoulders, and neck.  The underlying cause of cervical radiculopathy is often linked to spinal conditions like herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or degenerative disc disease, which compress or put pressure on the nerves in the cervical spine. Treatment options for cervical radiculopathy may include medication, physical therapy, or surgery in severe cases. Spurling test: Purpose: The Spurling test is a physical examination used to diagnose cervical radiculopathy, which results from the compression or irritation of cervical nerve roots. This test is named after Dr Harry Spurling, who  first described it in 1944. Technique: During the Spurling test, the patient sits with their head tilted and rotated to one side. The

Double Crush Syndrome- symptoms, diagnosis & treatment

What is double crush syndrome? Double crush syndrome is a medical condition that can be difficult to diagnose and may be overlooked or misunderstood. It occurs when a nerve is compressed or irritated at two or more points along its pathway, leading to symptoms in areas where the same nerve innervates.  This condition was first described in the 1970s and has since been recognized as a potential cause of pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling, among other symptoms.  It is often seen in individuals who perform repetitive movements with their hands or other body parts and can be exacerbated by underlying conditions such as diabetes or arthritis. Etiology & Pathophysiology Double crush syndrome can potentially develop in any part of the body where a nerve pathway exists, but it is most frequently observed in the upper extremities, especially in the hands and arms.  It is often seen in individuals who perform repetitive movements with their hands, such as musicians, computer users, or at

Hill Sachs Lesion

Hill Sachs lesion  An injury to the humeral head known as a Hill-Sachs lesion happens when the humerus is forcibly pulled away from the glenoid fossa, which features the shoulder joint. When the humeral head strikes the glenoid fossa's edge during a traumatic dislocation of the shoulder joint, a defect in the posterolateral quadrant is caused. Who are at risk? Younger patients participating in high-impact activities, including athletes or military veterans, are more likely to develop the Hill-Sachs lesion. Additionally, it can happen in older people with shoulder joint degeneration or those who have a history of frequent shoulder dislocations. Classification According to the proportion of the humeral head that is affected, the severity of a Hill-Sachs lesion is classified, with larger lesions indicating a higher risk of shoulder instability and recurrent dislocations. Depending on how much of the humeral head is affected, Hill-Sachs lesions are categorized. The severity of the inju