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Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

VITAMIN D - Uses, Side Effects, and More

what does vitamin mean?

Vitamins can be considered organic compounds that must be consumed in small amounts to carry out specific biological functions for the regular maintenance of an organism's optimum growth and health.

A vital component of the body's health and operation is the fat-soluble vitamin D, medically known as calciferol. This vitamin is crucial for supporting the immune system, promoting the development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth, and balancing the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body. A healthy diet, exposure to the sun, and dietary supplements are all good ways to get enough vitamin D.

Factors for lacking vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency is caused by inadequate sun exposure and a diet low in vitamin D.

Strict vegetarians
Severe alcohol addicts
People with liver and kidney diseases
People with fat malabsorption syndromes are among those who lack vitamin D.

How vitamin D affects bones and muscles?

The plasma levels of calcium and phosphate†in the body are controlled by calcitriol. Vitamin D aids in the body's ability to absorb these minerals through the intestine, which are necessary for the maintenance of strong bones and teeth. In addition, vitamin D helps control blood pressure and lowers the risk of developing certain cancers and autoimmune disorders. Vitamin D at adequate levels supports the immune system by lowering the risk of infections and supporting the immune response.

From where can we get vitamin D?

Calcitriol, which is produced in the liver and kidneys, is the biologically active form of vitamin D. Several food sources, including egg yolks, mushrooms, and fatty fish like salmon, herring, and sardines, are good sources of vitamin D. Additionally, foods that have been fortified with vitamin D include dairy products and by irradiating food that contains precursors of vitamin D. However, for most people, exposure to sunlight is the most significant source of vitamin D.The body can produce vitamin D when exposed totraviolet B (UVB) radiation through the skin. The best time to expose skin to the sun for this process is between 10 AM and 3 PM when the sun is at its peak in the sky. The amount of vitamin D that is synthesised in the skin is also influenced by several variables, such as age, skin pigmentation, and sun protection use.

The daily requirement set by Recommended dietary allowances;


  • Children = 10 micrograms (400 IU)/day
  • Adults = 5 micrograms (200 IU)/day
  • Pregnancy, lactation = 10 micrograms (400 IU)/day
  • Above the age of 60 = 15 micrograms (600 IU)/day

What happens if vitamin D exceed the daily requirement?

Vitamin D is the most toxic vitamin when taken in excess (10-100 times RDA).Symptoms of a vitamin D overdose include†nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite. Demineralisation of bones occurs due to excess consumption.†Heart palpitations, confusion, and kidney damage may be more severe symptoms. As a result, it's crucial to communicate with a doctor before taking†a†vitamin D supplement regimen. A calcium buildup in the blood from an excess of vitamin D can also cause kidney stones and other arterial†health issues.

What are the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency?

Rickets in children and osteomalacia†in adults are both brought on by vitamin D deficiency.

Frequently referred to as an anti-rachitic vitamin, vitamin D.

Children with rickets typically have deformed bones that are soft and pliable, and their teeth take longer to erupt. Bow legs are formed by bending the weight-bearing bones. Alkaline phosphatase activity is increased and the plasma level of calcitriol is decreased in rickets.

Osteomyelitis Renalis: Renal rickets is primarily caused by decreased calcitriol synthesis in the kidney.

The signs of a vitamin D deficiency may not appear right away and may take months or years to manifest. This is why it's crucial to have routine blood tests to check your vitamin D levels and to seek medical help if they fall below a certain level.

Why physiotherapy is important in dealing with vitamin D deficiency?

In addition to helping the patient's overall physical function, physiotherapy can help address the physical consequences of vitamin D deficiency, such as muscle weakness and bone pain. Exercise is one of the best ways that physiotherapist†can treat vitamin D deficiency. 

People with vitamin D deficiency need to exercise to develop and maintain strong bones and healthy muscles†because their bones are more prone to fractures. A physiotherapist can assist in creating a personalised exercise programme that is safe and efficient while taking the patient's needs into consideration. This could involve weight-bearing exercises like walking†or resistance training, which can improve physical function and increase bone density.

 Physiotherapy can support other lifestyle changes that can raise vitamin D levels in addition to exercise. This might include suggestions for outdoor pursuits like†that can increase sun exposure and aid vitamin D synthesis.


  1. it's very helpful information.

  2. Informative. Thank you

  3. I like the small details of it. Vitamin D is very essential to body. can you please post more about this.

  4. Very useful information


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