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Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

Goniometery in Physiotherapy

The term goniometry is derived from two Greek words, gonia, meaning "angle" and metron, meaning "measurement". A goniometer is an instrument that measures the available range of motion at a joint. Goniometry is the art and science of measuring the joint ranges in each plane of the joint.

If a patient or client suffers from a decreased range of motion in a particular joint, at the initial evaluation, the therapist can use a goniometer to evaluate what the range of motion is, and then ensure that the intervention works in subsequent sessions by using the goniometer.

There are different types of goniometers; the most used is the standard universal goniometer, which is either made from plastic or metal tools. It consists of a stationary arm, a moving arm, and a fulcrum. The telescopic-armed goniometer, Gravity Dependent Goniometer, fluid goniometer, pendulum, electronic goniometer, and some AI-based Application smartphones are other types of goniometer used for joint range of motion measurement.

Today, so many Artificial Intelligence work together in the application that helps to measure ROM without Goniometer, but as it evolves, errors are a major problem with AI Goniometry.

Techniques for using a goniometer

1. Patients Consent is taken first, then patients clothes are removed where the joint measurement to be taken.

2. position the patient in a relaxed manner and the joint to be measured should be free from any obstructions like a pillow, couch, etc.

3.Measuring joint has to be in a 0-degree position. and the total procedure should be explained to the patient.

4. Goniometry requires the use of a single notation system. The most widely used method is the neutral zero methods (0 to the 180-degree system).

5. to avoid errors in GOniometery, To lower the chances of instrumental error, the same goniometer should always be used.

6. Therapist Has to stand near to the joint, which has to be measured.

7. Axis or fulcrum of the goniometer is placed over the axis of the joint to be measured.

8. stable arm is fixed with the Proximal Segment of the joint.

9. Movable arm is fixed with the distal segment of the joint.

1. Therapist has to Move the distal segment of the joint with the movable arm of the goniometer to measure the Joint range.

Procedures To Measure ROM for Major Joints

  • Ankle (Subtalar) eversion.
  • Ankle (Subtalar) inversion.
  • Ankle (Talocrural) dorsiflexion.
  • Ankle (Talocrural) plantarflexion.
  • Elbow extension.
  • Elbow flexion.
  • Forearm pronation.
  • Forearm supination.
  • Hip abduction.
  • Hip adduction.
  • Hip extension.
  • Hip flexion.
  • Hip external rotation.
  • Hip internal rotation.
  • Knee extension.
  • Knee flexion.
  • Shoulder abduction.
  • Shoulder flexion.
  • Shoulder horizontal abduction.
  • Shoulder internal and external rotation.
  • Wrist extension.
  • Wrist flexion.
  • Wrist radial deviation.
  • Wrist ulnar deviation.


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