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Showing posts from October, 2020

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Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

Extensor hallucis longus muscle in human body

It is a thin muscle situated in between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Origin – an  anterior shaft of fibula, interosseous membrane Insertion   - the  base of distal phalanx of the great toe Nerve supply – deep peroneal nerve(l4,5,s1) Blood supply – anterior tibial artery Action – an  extension of great toe, assists dorsiflexion of ankle Palpation – tendon palpated lateral to tibialis anterior the tendon on the anterior surface of the ankle and also on the dorsum of the foot near the greater toe

Tibialis anterior muscle in human body

Origin – lateral condyle and lateral shaft of tibia , interosseous membrane Insertion- the  base of 1 st metatarsal,first cuneiform Nerve supply- deep peroneal nerve(l4,5,s1) Blood supply- anterior tibial artery Action- dorsiflexion of the ankle, inversion of the foot Palpation- lateral side of the tibia on the anterior surface during active ankle dorsiflexion tendon palpated on the medial side of anterior the surface of the ankle. Paralysis of this muscle causes foot drop. Frequently involved in “shin splints"  

Tibialis posterior muscle in human body

 It is the deepest muscle of the deep posterior compartment of the lower leg. Origin – posterior tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane Insertion   - navicular and adjacent tarsals and metatarsals on the plantar surface. Nerve supply – tibial nerve(l5,s1) Blood supply- posterior tibial artery Action- inversion of the foot, assist plantarflexion of the ankle Palpation- tendon palpated on medial malleolus during active inversion of the foot.belly is deep to triceps sural and cannot be palpated. “it is the key stabilizing muscle of the lower leg"

The peroneus muscles in the human body

The peroneus muscles are consist of three muscles and it also called fibularis. Peroneus is derived from the Greek word for fibula, indicating the location of the peroneal muscles. 1.        Peroneus Tertius (fibularis Tertius) 2.        Peroneus brevis ( fibularis brevis) 3.        Peroneus longus (fibularis longus)   1.        Peroneus Tertius (fibularis Tertius) Origin – anterior distal fibula(with extensor digitorum longus) Insertion – the  base of 5 th metatarsal Nerve supply – deep peroneal nerve(l4,5,s1) Action – eversion of the foot, assist dorsiflexion Palpation – tendon palpated lateral to extensor digitorum longus tendon on dorsum of foot at base of 5 th metatarsal. This muscle functions to place the foot flat on the ground by raising the lateral border. 2.         Peroneus brevis (fibularis brevis) Origin – lateral shaft of the fibula (lower 2/3) Insertion – the  base of 5 th metatarsal Nerve supply- superficial peroneal nerve (l4,5,s1)

Extensor digitorum longus and brevis muscle in the human body

    Extensor digitorum  longus It is the pennate muscle situated in the lateral part of the front leg. Origin – lateral the condyle of tibia, proximal 2/3 of anterior shaft of fibula Insertion – middle and distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes Nerve supply – deep peroneal nerve(l4,5,s1) Blood supply – proximal part is supplied by anterior tibial artery and the distal part is supplied by the fibular artery. Palpation- common tendon palpated on the anterior surface of the ankle, lateral to extensor hallucis longus tendon. the divided tendons palpated on the dorsum of the foot. 2.        Extensor digitorum brevis Origin – anterior calcaneus Insertion – extensor expansion of 4 medial toes Nerve supply   - deep peroneal nerve(l4,5,s1) Action – aids extension of 4 medial toes at mp joints Blood supply -   anterior perforating branch of the fibular artery and the anterior lateral malleolar artery Palpation- anterior to and   slightly below lateral malleolus on the dorsum of the foot.  


The two large muscles are together known as a calf muscle. Gastrocnemius Soleus 1. Gastrocnemius- It is the larger calf muscle forming the bulge of calf muscle which is visible beneath the skin . The two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle together create a diamond shape of the muscle. Origin- medial head: medial epicondyle of the femur lateral head: lateral epicondyle of the femur Insertion- calcaneus via tendo achillis Nerve supply -tibial nerve Blood supply- branch of popliteal artery anterior and posterior tibial artery Action- plantar flexion of the ankle or assist flexion of the knee Palpation-  the upper half of the posterior calf during active plantarflexion of ankle .tendon palpated as part of Achilles tendon. Gastro is the Greek term for “belly”.this muscle can act on the knee or the ankle separately but not simultaneously. Soleus It is a smaller calf muscle and it lies underneath the gastrocnemius muscle. Origin-  a sole line of the tibia, posterior head, and upper shaft