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Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

Quadriceps group of muscles in human body

 the quadriceps muscle is consist of four muscle

1.   -rectus femoris

-vastus intermedius

-vastus medialis

-vastus lateralis

 These four large anterior thigh muscles insert below the knee and act to extend the knee joint. the three vast lie deep to the rectus femoris and two have their origins on the posterior femur. the rectus femoris originates on the pelvis and thereby can act to flex the hip.

Quadriceps group of muscles in human body

1.rectus femoris

Origin-long head: anterior inferior iliac spine

               short head: upper margin of the acetabulum

Insertion -patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Nerve supply-femoral nerve (l2,3,4)

Blood supply-lateral femoral circumflex artery

Action-Extention of knee

               assist flexion of femur at hip

The palpation-anterior surface of the thigh during active knee extension

The Rectus femoris is the only muscle in the quadriceps group that crosses both the hip and knee joints. its combined action is seen as the leg is brought forward in walking.

Quadriceps group of muscles in human body

Remaining three muscles of the quadriceps group

1.vastus medialis

2.vastus lateralis

3.vastus intermedius


·         Vastus medialis – linea aspera on posterior femur

·         Vastus lateralis – linea aspera on the posterior femur, greater trochanter of femur

·         Vastus intermedius – anterior and lateral femoral shaft

*insertion – patella and via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

*nerve supply – femoral nerve(l2,3,4)

*action- the extension of the knee

*palpation –

·         Vastus medialis – anterior medial surface of the lower third of the thigh ,medial to biceps femoris during active knee extension

·         Vastus lateralis – lateral surface of thigh, lateral to biceps femoris during active knee extension

·         Vastus intermedius – may attempt to palpate under the rectus femoris by pushing this muscle medially during active knee extension. Vastus is the Latin term for immense .these three muscles of the quadriceps group derive their name from their size and position.



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