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Showing posts from November, 2019

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Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

What is Fick Principle in Physiotherapy?

What is the Fick Principle? The Fick principle and Fick equation are named after A. Fick, a cardiovascular physiologist who developed the principle in the 1870s. The amount of oxygen delivered to tissue can be calculated using the Fick principle. The Fick principle states that the amount of a substance removed from the blood passing through an organ per unit of time can be calculated by multiplying the blood flow through the organ times the arterial concentration minus the venous concentration of that substance.  The Fick principle can be used to calculate oxygen consumption for the entire body or for a specific tissue or organ. In the case of oxygen consumption for the entire body, the Fick principle results in the following equation:  VO₂ = Q × a-v O₂ difference  where  Q equals cardiac output and, a-v O₂ difference  equals arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference . This equation can be used to calculate oxygen consumption at rest, at submaximal worklo

Abdominal Crunches For Abdominal Muscles

Abdominal crunches primarily work on abdominal muscles and it is widely used as general body workout and abdominal muscles strengthening. How to Do Abdominal Crunches? 1. Lie down on the floor on your back and bend your knees, placing your hands behind your head or across your chest. Some people find that crossing the arms over the chest helps them avoid pulling on the neck. 2. If you are putting your hands behind your head, your fingers should gently cradle your head. The idea is to support your neck without taking away from the work of your abs. 3. Pull your belly button towards your spine in preparation for the movement.  4. Slowly contract your abdominals, bringing your shoulder blades about one or two inches off the floor. 5. Exhale as you come up and keep your neck straight, chin up. Imagine you're holding a tennis ball under your chin. That's about the angle you want to keep the chin the entire time. 6. Slowly lower back down. 7. Repetation

Pectoralis Major -The ARM MOVERS

The Pectoralis major is a muscle of the pectoral region. This muscle along with the Pectoralis minor, Subclavius and Serratus anterior forms the pectoral region. It is the largest muscle in this region. Morphologically it is thin and fan-shaped. It is characterized by 2 heads, the large Sternocostal head, and the small Clavicular head. ORIGIN The Sternocostal head arises from- Medial parts of 2nd-6th costal cartilages and aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle of the abdomen. Lateral half of the anterior surface of the sternum up to 6th costal cartilage. The Clavicular head arises from the medial half of the anterior aspect of the clavicle. INSERTION Pectoralis major is inserted by a bilaminar tendon on the lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus. This tendon has an anterior lamina and a posterior lamina. Anterior lamina is thick, short and is formed by clavicular fibers. Posterior lamina is thin, long and is formed by sternocostal and aponeurotic fi

Osteoporosis,Causes and Physiotherapy treatment

According to WHO( World Health Organisation), Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass & microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility & a consequent increase in fracture risk.   Osteoporosis is far commonest Metabolic Bone Diseases. It occurs when the Rate of Bone Resorption exceeds Rate of Bone Formation. This weakness in bone and brittleness results in the reduction of BMD due to a deficiency of Vitamin D and Calcium. Deficient calcium absorption from the intestine. ↓ Stimulates parathyroid gland ↓ Parathyroid Hormone resorbs Calcium from bone ↓ OSTEOPOROSIS Classification: Primary Osteoporosis : Type 1 - Postosteoporosis Type 2 - Senile osteoporosis Secondary Osteoporosis  Due to some diseases such as Endocrine, Malignancy, prolong intake of medicine eg: steroids, antiepileptics, etc. Causes for osteoporosis: Senility Post immobilization e

Pectineus Muscle

The adductor muscles refer to five muscles which are pectineus , gracilis, adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor Magnus.  pectineus is flat muscle, which is quadrangular in shape and positioned anteriorly in the thigh. it is also sometimes referred to as a most anterior adductor of the hip. Origin of Pectineus Pectineus originates from a pectineal line of the pubis. Insertion Origin of Pectineus Pectineus is inserted on inferior from lesser trochanter to linea aspera. Action Origin of Pectineus Pectineus is responsible for adduction, flexion & medial rotation thigh . Nerve Supply Pectineus is supplied by Femoral & obturator nerve combined. Arterial Supply Pectineus muscle is blood supplied by Medial circumflex femoral branch of the femoral artery and obturator artery.

Biceps Brachii

Biceps brachii Commonly known as the biceps is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow. It is a large muscle. The biceps brachii muscle is one of the chief and prominent muscles of the arm. Origin:  Biceps brachii has two head. Short head originates from the tip of coracoid process of scapula; Long head originates from supraglenoid tubercle of scapula. Insertion: It is Inserted at Tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis . Action:  Supinates forearm and, when it is supine, flexes the forearm Nerve Supply:  Biceps brachii supplied by Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 and C6 ). Arterial Supply: Muscular branches of the brachial artery.

What is Pelvic Tilt ?

Movement in the spine and hip joint make it possible for the pelvis to be established in the variety of Positions. it may be inclined or tilted in anteroposterior directions, laterally or rotated. which is known as Pelvic Tilt. Types of Pelvic tilt anteroposterior Tilt lateral tilting Rotation of Pelvis 1) Antero-posterior Tilt:  pelvic tilt measurement is performed in three ways in the erect position. It is possible to measure the angle at which the imaginary line is drawn through the pubic symphysis and the lumbosacral angle in relation to the horizontal line. The pelvic tilt is said to be normal when the angle of the os pelvic tilt is between 50 ° and 60 ° when the anterior upper iliac spines and the symphysis pubis are in the same vertical plane.  The angle is measured by a pelvic inclinometer . One arm of the inclinometer on the symphysis and the other on the PSIS. The normal range is 30 °. The increased angle of pelvic tilt may be referred to as forwarding

What is Fibromyalgia? Cause And Physical therapy

Fibromyalgia, also sometimes called fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), is a long-term condition that causes pain all over the body in a specific way.  fibromyalgia  is a noninflammatory, nondegenerative, nonprogressive disorder, still, several factors may affect the severity of symptoms.  Fibromyalgia is the second most common condition affecting your bones and muscles with pain and still, it is often misdiagnosed and misunderstood. classic symptoms of fibromyalgia are muscle and joint pain and fatigue with less activity. symptoms of fibromyalgia are, fatigue (extreme tiredness) increased sensitivity to pain headaches trouble sleeping (nonrestorative sleep) dry eyes depression anxiety pain or a dull ache in the lower belly sleeping for long periods without feeling rested  bladder problems(like interstitial cystitis) trouble focusing or paying attention In people with fibromyalgia, the brain and nerve activities are interpreted thus it may misinterpret or overreact to nor

Treatment and Rehabilitation Protocol for Acute Ankle Sprain

Even something as common as a slightly sprained ankle requires therapy. Nearly every athlete or active person will at some point need physical therapy (PT) , which is the rehabilitation of an injury. Don’t shake your head. It doesn’t have to be a major injury, such as a broken bone. Even something as common as a slightly sprained ankle requires therapy. Ankle Sprains are among the most common in the lower limbs. It is usually caused by a low-velocity trauma such as twisting injuries, falls, car accidents and injuries related to sports activities. the ankle is one of the most complex joints in the human body in the lower limb as per anatomy. It has numerous bones, ligaments, and tendons. It’s definitely worth some research. Type “anatomy of the human ankle” into a search engine and you may be surprised at what you learn. For our purposes, let’s follow the timeline of a sprained ankle without PT. You first realize something is wrong with your ankle after an activity. Y

Hamstring Muscles in Human Body

What are the three  hamstring muscles ? it is  Biceps femoris ,  Semitendinosus ,  Semimembranosus. Where is the hamstring muscle located?  Right Behind your Thighs, The hamstrings are a group of four muscles  located in the back of the thigh . They run from the pelvis down to the knee and help bend the knee and extend the hip. The hamstrings are quite susceptible to injury. Biceps femoris               The biceps femoris is the muscle of the back thigh. it names says itself that it has two-part(  Biceps- two head ). the long and short heads. Sometimes short head may be absent. The muscle's  Blood supply  is derived from the anastomoses of several arteries, the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery, the inferior gluteal artery, and the popliteal artery. Biceps femoris ORIGIN: Biceps femoris Has two heads as it  originates  from two separate origins. the long head  originates from the ischial tuberosity. the short head  originates fr

Rhomboid Major Muscle

Rhomboid major ORIGIN: spinous processes of T2-T5. INSERTION:  medial border of the scapula. ACTION: Rhomboid minor and Rhomboid major are working together as a whole to perform the movement. retract scapula (squaring shoulders), synergist with middle fibers of Trapezius. rotate glenoid cavity downward (lowering arm against resistance). stabilize scapula. NERVE SUPPLY: Dorsal scapular nerve