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Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

Abnormal Endfeel in Physiotherapy

The abnormal end feels, several of which have subdivisions and each of which is commonly associated with some degree of pain or restricted movement. classified in Five :

1) Muscle Spasm

This end feel is invoked by movement, with a sudden dramatic arrest of movement often accompanied by pain. The end feel is sudden and hard.

An early muscle spasm occurs early in the ROM, almost as soon as movement starts; this type of muscle spasm is associated with inflammation and is seen in more acute conditions.

A late muscle spasm occurs at or near the end of the ROM. It is usually caused by instability and the resulting irritability caused by movement.

2) Capsular:

this end feel is similar to tissue stretch. present earliest in ROM. ROM is reduced. 
this end feel can be classified into
hard capsular, in which the end feel has a thicker stretching quality to it, and
soft capsular (boggy), which is similar to normal tissue stretch end feel but with a restricted ROM.

3) Bone-to-Bone

This abnormal end feel is similar to the normal bone-to-bone type, but the restriction occurs before the end of ROM.
An example is a bone-to-bone end feel in the cervical spine resulting from osteophyte formation.

4) Empty:

The empty end feel is detected when movement produces considerable pain. The movement cannot be performed or stops because of the pain.

5) Springy Block:

Similar to a tissue stretch, most commonly found in joints with menisci. There is a rebound effect with a thick stretching feel still it is not as stretchy as a hard capsular end feel.
it usually indicates an internal derangement within the joint.
Example: A springy block end feel may be found with a torn meniscus of a knee when it is locked or unable to go into full extension.

want to Know about Normal Endfeel? Go to Normal Endfeel


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