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Breathing Exercises: Types, Techniques and Benefits

Breathing Exercises: Exercises for the lungs also referred to as breathing exercises , are essential for improving lung function and promoting respiratory health. These exercises are intended to strengthen respiratory muscles, increase lung capacity, and enhance the body's ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. These breathing techniques are frequently used in medical settings: Diaphragmatic Breathing Pursed lip Breathing Segmental Breathing Diaphragmatic Breathing: The diaphragm , a dome-shaped muscle situated below the lungs, is used actively during diaphragmatic breathing, also referred to as deep belly breathing or abdominal breathing . By fully contracting the diaphragm, this technique focuses on expanding the lower part of the lungs, enabling deeper and more effective inhalation and exhalation. Technique: Look for a quiet location where you can sit or lie down. You can close your eyes to improve relaxation and focus. Put one hand on your upper chest and the other on

Key Tests Performed at the Shoulder Depending on Suspected Pathology

                                  Taking a detailed patient history is important. Listen carefully to the patient’s past medical history and history of presenting condition. The narrative given by the patient contains much of the information needed to rule out red flags and guide the shoulder examination.
                                  The patient may report pain local to the involved shoulder. The symptoms may extend toward the scapula, axilla, anterior chest, along with the clavicle, or down the humerus. When taking the patients history it is also important to ask if they have pain or symptoms in other regions such as their cervical or thoracic spine, or elbow. The patient may also report difficulty with overhead activities, lifting objects, activities of daily living, sports or recreational activities.& There are several presentations that may differ depending on the suspected pathology.

{ Click the Test to Read in Detail}

A.For anterior shoulder (glenohumeral) instability:
c. Crank (apprehension) and relocation test👈
d.Fulcrum test👈
e.Load and shift test👈

B.For posterior shoulder (glenohumeral) instability:
a.Jerk test👈
b.Load and shift test👈
c.Norwood test👈
d.Posterior apprehension test👈
e.Posterior drawer test👈

C.For anterior impingement:
a.Coracoid impingement sign👈
b.Hawkins-Kennedy test👈
c.Neer test👈
d.Supine impingement test👈
e.Yokum test👈
f.Zaslav test (internal rotation resistance strength test [IRRST])👈

D.For inferior and multidirectional shoulder (glenohumeral) instability:
a.Feagin test👈
b.Sulcus sign👈

F.For posterior impingement:
a.Posterior internal impingement test👈

G.For labral lesions:
a.Active compression test of O’Brien👈
b.Anterior slide test👈
c.Biceps tension test👈
d.Biceps load test (Kim test II)👈
e.Clunk test👈
f.Compression rotation test👈
g.Dynamic labral shear test👈
h.Forced shoulder abduction and elbow flexion test👈
i.Kim test I (biceps load test II)👈
j.Mayo shear test👈
k.Pain provocation test👈
l.Resisted supination external rotation test (RSERT)👈

H.For scapular dyskinesia:
a.Lateral scapular slide test👈
b.Scapular load test👈
c.Scapular retraction test (SRT)👈
d.Wall/floor pushup👈

I.For ligament pathology:
a.Coracoclavicular ligament test👈
b.Crank test👈

J.For acromioclavicular joint pathology:
a.Horizontal adduction test👈
b.Paxinos sign👈

K.For muscle pathology:
a.Speed’s test👈
b.Yergason’s test👈

a.Drop arm test👈
b.“Empty can” test👈

a.Bear-hug test👈
b.Belly press test (abdominal compression or Napolean test)👈
c.External rotation lag sign (ERLS)👈
e.Lift-off sign (Gerber’s test)👈
f.Medial rotation lag or “spring back” test👈

a.Dropping sign👈

5.Infraspinatus test
a.Lateral rotation lag sign👈

6.Teres Minor
a.Hornblower’s sign👈

7.Rotator Cuff (in general)
a.Rent test👈
b.Whipple test👈

a.Trapezius test (three positions)👈

9.Serratus Anterior
a.Punch out test👈


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